01. IntroductionModule 03: KNOW HISTORY, KNOW SELF | History, Memory, Perspective



Aurelio Agcaoili, Ph.D., Indo-Pacific Languages and Literature, UH-Manoa
Felicia Flores, East-West Ford Fellow
Rebecca Hirakami, Kalihi Kai Elementary School
Theresa Navarro, MA, American Studies


In the Philippines and the US alike, there is a common saying that if you don’t look back to where you came from, you will never get to where you’re going. For Filipino American students in Hawai‘i public schools, Philippine history is at once a foreign and profoundly personal concept. On one hand, students rarely encounter Philippine history in mainstream U.S. history textbooks despite the long and complicated connection between the two nations; on the other hand, students are exposed to everyday forms of this “hidden history” through family stories, cultural traditions and community values.

This module provides local educators with tools to examine critical connections between memory, perspective and colonization and how it influences the interpreting and silencing of Philippine history. By recognizing the diversity and dignity of Filipino experiences, students can then free themselves from the chains of local and globalized stereotypes – often harmful internalized images that subconsciously damage students’ perceptions of self as well as deter meaningful interactions with others. Whether you teach humanities, math or science, a critical history education builds empowered and engaged learners.


  • Participants will understand and describe the workings of Philippine issues (Concept/Content);
  • Participants will build their sensory and knowledge skills by interpreting aural, material, visual culture
  • Participants will related and narrate historical events through storytelling and praxis (theory, practice and reflection


  • Fine Arts –
    • Standard 3: DRAMA AND THEATRE: Understand and apply the skills of acting, design, and technical theatre and understand the role of drama in various cultures throughout history
  • Language Arts –
    • Standard 3: Reading - LITERARY RESPONSE AND ANALYSIS: Respond to literary texts from a range of stances: personal, interpretive, critical
    • Standard 6: Oral Communication - CONVENTIONS AND SKILLS: Apply knowledge of verbal and nonverbal language to communicate effectively in various situations: interpersonal, group, and public for a variety of purposes
  • Social Studies –
    • Standard 1: Historical Understanding: CHANGE, CONTINUITY, AND CAUSALITY-Understand change and/or continuity; cause, effect in history
    • Standard 2: Historical Understanding: INQUIRY, EMPATHY AND PERSPECTIVE- Use the tools and methods of inquiry, perspective, and empathy to explain historical events with multiple interpretations and judge the past on its own terms
    • Standard 3: History - HISTORICAL CONTENT-Understand people now and then, here and now (learning, living, working together)
    • Standard 6: Cultural Anthropology - SYSTEMS, DYNAMICS, AND INQUIRY-Understand culture as a system of beliefs, knowledge, and practices shared by a group and understand how cultural systems change over time
    • Standard 7: Geography - WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS-Use geographic representations to organize, analyze, and present information on people, places, and environments and understand the nature and interaction of geographic regions and societies around the world

ELL Strategies

  • Activating prior knowledge
  • Using manipulatives
  • Flexible response methods (pair-share, small group, choral repetition)
  • Jigsaw groups
  • Frontloading vocabulary
  • Non-verbal responses (thumbs up/down)
  • Vocabulary banks
  • Teacher facilitates whole class discussions